1. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.
Traditional computer viruses.
1. The first PC virus was a boot sector virus called Brain, created in 1986 by the Farooq Alvi Brothers, operating out of Lahore, Pakistan, The brothers reportedly created the virus to deter pirated copies of software they had written. However, analysts have claimed that the Ashar virus, a variant of Brain, possibly predated it based on code within the virus.
Before computer networks became widespread, most viruses spread on removable media, particularly floppy disks. In the early days of the personal computer, many users regularly exchanged information and programs on floppies. Some viruses spread by infecting programs stored on these disks, while others installed themselves into the disk boot sector, ensuring that they would be run when the user booted the computer from the disk.
2. Traditional computer viruses emerged in the 1980s, driven by the spread of personal computers and the resultant increase in BBS and modem use, and software sharing. Bulletin board driven software sharing contributed directly to the spread of Trojan horse programs, and viruses were written to infect popularly traded software. Shareware and bootleg software were equally common vectors for viruses on BBS's. Within the "pirate scene" of hobbyists trading illicit copies of retail software, traders in a hurry to obtain the latest applications and games were easy targets for viruses.
3. Since the mid-1990s, macro viruses have become common. Most of these viruses are written in the scripting languages for Microsoft programs such as Word and Excel. These viruses spread in Microsoft Office by infecting documents and spreadsheets. Since Word and Excel were also available for Mac OS, most of these viruses were able to spread on Macintosh computers as well. Most of these viruses did not have the ability to send infected e-mail. Those viruses which did spread through e-mail took advantage of the Microsoft Outlook COM interface.
Macro virus poses unique problems for detection software. For example, some versions of Microsoft Word allowed macros to replicate themselves with additional blank lines. The virus behaved identically but would be misidentified as a new virus. In another example, if two macro viruses simultaneously infect a document, the combination of the two if also
self-replicating, can appear as a "mating" of the two and would likely be detected as a virus unique from the "parents".
4. A virus may also send a web address link as an instant message to all the contacts on an infected machine. If the recipient, thinking the link is from a friend (a
trusted source) follows the link to the website, the virus hosted at the site may be able to infect this new computer and continue propagating.
The newest species of the virus family is the cross-site scripting virus. The virus emerged from research and was academically demonstrated in 2005.
This virus utilizes cross-site scripting vulnerabilities to propagate. Since 2005
there have been multiple instances of the cross-site scripting viruses in the wild, most notable sites affected have been MySpace and Yahoo.
2. Выпишите из абзацев 2, 3, 4 предложения и определите по
грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием - s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. является
а) показателем 3-го лица, ед. числа глагола в Present Simple
b) признаком множественного числа имени существительного
с) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного
3. Выпишите из 1,2,3 абзацев текста предложения, содержащие глаголы to be, to have, to do, обращая внимание на различные функции их употребления. Определите функции глаголов и их временную форму (смысловой глагол, вспомогательный глагол, глагол-связка), предложения переведите.
4. Выпишите из 3, 2, 4 абзацев предложения содержащие форму глагола в страдательном залоге - Passive Voice, определите в каждом из них временную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
5. Образуйте сравнительную и превосходную степени прилагательных. Переведите на русский язык.
6. Поставьте общий и специальные вопросы к следующему
предложению, указав видовременную форму глагола.
Most of these viruses didn't have ability to send infected е-mail.
7. Письменно ответьте на вопросы.
1. Who created the first РС virus?
2. When did traditional computer viruses emerge?
3. What is the newest species of the virus family?